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Essay结尾段(conclusion)写作Q&A

发表时间:2021-07-28 15:45:51

为了让各位更好地吸收Essay结尾段(conclusion)写作干货,本文将会通过Q&A的方式,来逐一了解Essay结尾段写作的各大要点:

Essay结尾段(conclusion)

问:Essay结尾段一定要写吗?


答:坦白说,这个问题有点过于笼统,它的答案并非“非黑即白”,建议具体问题具体分析。比如针对雅思写作大作文,我会推荐写一个结尾段,因为评分标准有涉及这个要点。但是针对雅思写作小作文,结尾段则非必须。再比如拿托福大小作文进行比较,我们会发现在托福小作文中结尾段非必须,但是你可以将其作为对全文的锦上添花。而针对托福大作文,从结尾段的必要性程度而言,会高于托福小作文,但是我依旧会认为结尾段同样非必须,但是如果你写了的话,会让整个文章总体结构看起来更加完整。

综合而言,针对考场类作文,我会推荐各位在时间允许的情况下,可以写,能写则写。而针对非考场类作文,比如学术论文类写作,时间、篇幅和字数都允许的情况下,则最好写结尾段。为什么呢?咱们就得了解一下结尾段的具体功能了。

问:Essay结尾段的具体功能,指的是?


答:关于结尾段的具体功能,咱们可以参考全英文书籍《Writing Academic English》的介绍。

The conclusion is the final paragraph in an essay. It has three purposes.

1. It signals the end of the essay. To do so, begin your conclusion with a transition signal. 

2. It reminds your reader of your main points, which you can do in one of two ways: You can

>> summarize your subtopics

>> paraphrase your thesis.

3. It leaves your reader with your final thoughts on the topic. This your opportunity to convey a strong, effective message that your reader will remember.

结尾段作为一篇文章的最后一段,通常包含了以下三大目的:

1. 它标志着文章的结束。为了向读者们传递文章即将结束,你可以在结尾段使用“transition signal”(过渡信号词)。以下是《Writing Academic English》推荐的结尾段信号词:

1) All in all, ...

2) In brief, ...

3) In short, ...

4) To conclude, ...

5) To summarize, ...

6) In conclusion, ...

7) In summary, ...

8) For these reasons, ...

2. 它提醒着读者们关于你的文章核心要点。你可以通过以下两种方式达成次目的:

1)总结子主题

2)将中心论点进行同义替换的方式

3.它给读者们留下关于该文章主题的最后想法,能向读者们传递能被记住的观点讯息。

既然要让读者们记得我们在一篇文章中的观点,那么可以通过哪些写作技法来达成呢?快来看看如何写出一个让人印象深刻的结尾段吧!

Essay结尾段(conclusion)写作Q&A

问:如何写出一个让人印象深刻的结尾段呢?


答:结尾段的写作手法坦白说,真的太多了。Meeloun推荐你学习来自《Writing Academic English》推荐的四种常见结尾段写作手法:

1)Make a prediction预言未来法

example:We have seen how the costs of attending college have been rising while, at the same, sources of financial aid for students have been disappearing. If this trend continues, fewer and fewer families will be able to send their children through four years of college.

2) Suggest results or consequences 表明后果法

example:To sum up, the costs of attending college are up and financial aid for students is down. Fewer and fewer future members of the workforce are able to educate themselves beyond high school. As a result, the nation will waste the intelligence, imagination, and energy of a large segment of the present college-age generation.

3)Suggest a solution, make a recommendation, or call for action 建议方案法

example: It is clear that the U.S. system of higher education is in trouble. For many students, four years of college is no longer possible because of increasing costs and decreasing financial aid. To reverse this trend, we must demand that government increase its financial support of colleges and universities and restore financial aid programs. Our future depends on it.

4) Quote an authority on the topic 引用权威法

example: In conclusion, costs are rising and financial aid is declining, with the result that many can no longer afford to go to the college. If our nation is to prosper, increased government funding for education is essential, even if it requires higher taxes. As Horace Mann argued in his Fifth Annual Report, a nation’s economic wealth will increase through an educated public. It is therefore in the self-interest of business to pay the taxation for public education.
 

问:结尾段一般要写几句话?能只写一句话吗?


答:考虑到结尾段一般需要重申观点和再结合以上几大技法,我通常会推荐学生们写2-3句话。

有的学生曾经问我,结尾段能不能只写一句话?非常有趣的是,关于这个答案呢,我发现真的是见仁见智。如果你回头看看前文问题三中的几个范例,你会发现这些结尾段全都使用了不止一句话。但是如果你看过英国雅思前考官Simon(人送外号“雅思白求恩”)的9分雅思大作文范文合集网络版本,你会发现他的雅思结尾段几乎是清一色的“一句话”(请参考以下3个范例):

example1: In conclusion, I believe that increased financial support could help to raise the quality of locally made films and allow them to compete with the foreign productions that currently dominate the market.
 
example2: In conclusion, I believe that every effort should be made to attract tourists from overseas, and it would be counterproductive to make them pay more than local residents.

example3: In conclusion, while there are some reasons to believe that people now depend on each other more, my own view is that we are more independent than ever.

那么,到底能不能在结尾段只写一句话呢?结合我自己多年的英文写作经验,我的个人看法是:词汇和词汇的结合成就了句子,句子和句子的结合成就了段落,段落和段落的结合成就了文章。所以,为了让一个段落看起来更像是一个段落,更加饱满充实一些,我会建议你写至少2句话的结尾段。